Fostering A Multi-level Approach to Entrepreneurial Pedagogy: The German Experience

  • Magdalena Łuczak-Trąpczyńska Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu
  • Piotr Trąpczyński Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu
Słowa kluczowe: entrepreneurial pedagogy, entrepreneurial education, Germany


Research Objective: The aim of this paper is to analyse the case of entrepreneurial pedagogy in Germany at the level of primary and secondary education and to identify good practices in the development of entrepreneurship skills of pupils.

The Research Problem And Methods: The paper uses a systematic review of literature with relation to entrepreneurial education, as well as the German literature of the topic, in order to descend to the analysis of secondary data related to the German education system and its usage of entrepreneurial pedagogy.

The Process Of Argumentation: In the first part, the paper clarifies the notion of entrepreneurial pedagogy and introduces modern didactic approaches, particularly process-oriented teaching. Subsequently, the German case is used to analyse how entrepreneurial pedagogy can be implemented at different interrelated levels. In the recommendation section, the success factors of the implementation of such an approach are discussed. The paper ends with some concluding remarks.

Research Results: The analysis of entrepreneurial pedagogy in German literature and practice highlights the relevance of an interplay of solutions at different levels: the level of the state (or, in the case of decentralised educational systems like the German one, at the regional level), the level of school initiative, as well as the individual level of educators who are in charge of implementing entrepreneurial teaching methods.

Conclusions, Innovations And Recommendations: According to the concept of process-oriented didactics presented in this paper, the aspect of making mistakes is an important engine of learning, as well as teaching itself.

Biogramy autorów

Magdalena Łuczak-Trąpczyńska, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu

M.Sc. in Management of the Poznań University of Economics and Business. Her doctoral research concentrates on the institutional determinants of the controlling system in MNE subsidiaries. She is chief financial officer in a subsidiary of an MNE operating in Poland, and served as board member in the same company. Overall she has extensive experience in controlling positions in both headquarters and subsidiaries of MNEs.

Piotr Trąpczyński, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu

Piotr Trąpczyński is assistant professor at the Department of International Competitiveness, Poznan University of Economics. He is also an MBA and Master lecturer with specialisation in international business strategy and international marketing, as well as head of the research project "The determinants of foreign direct investment performance in the internationalisation process of Polish companies", financed by the National Science Centre of Poland (for the period 2013-2015).

Prior to these positions, Piotr worked as Research Assistant at the Berlin Campus of ESCP Europe, where he completed a European Doctoral Programme in International Business, and lecturer in international business at the Academy of Business and Economics (VWA) in Berlin. He had also gained business experience through several positions in the IT industry, strategic management consulting and brand management in the FMCG sector. He gained his PhD degree at the Poznań University of Economics, as well as M.Sc. from the City University of London, Dipl.-Kfm and Master degrees of the ESCP Europe in Berlin and Paris.

His research interests include internationalization into and from emerging and transition economies (with focus on the CEE), FDI performance, firm competitiveness, as well as mixed-method research. He is author and co-author of related publications in international books (i.a. Gabler, Palgrave Macmillan, Edgar Elgar Publishing) and journals (including European Management Journal, Journal of Economics and Management, Oeconomia Copernicana, or Poznan University of Economics Review).


Abdous, M.H. (2011). A process-oriented framework for acquiring online teaching

competencies. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 23(1), 60-77.

Apelojg, B. (2016). Process-Oriented Didactics, Ideas for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning. For the cowboy on the right path! Retrieved from:

online.pdf (access: 03.05.2017).

Bauer, R. (2003). Offenes Arbeiten in der SEK I. Cornelsen Verlag.

Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst.

(2017a). Wettbewerb fördert unternehmerisches Denken an den Schulen. Retrieved


unternehmerisches-denken-an-den-schulen.html (access: 02.05.2017).

Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst. (2017b). JUNIOR-Programme fördern kreative Jungunternehmer. Retrieved


kreatve-jungunternehmer.html (access: 02.05.2017).

Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst. (2017c). Einmal selbst Banker sein. Retrieved from:

schueler/meldung/4420/einmal-selbst-banker-sein.html (access: 02.05.2017).

Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst. (2017d). Hervorragende seminararbeiten zu wirtschaftsthemen gesucht. Retrieved

from: /3238/hervorragende-

seminararbeiten-zu-wirtschaftsthemen-gesucht.html (access: 30.04.2017).

Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst. (2017e). Schueler entdecken das thema wirtschaft. Retrieved from: https://

html (access: 30.04.2017).

Brown, S.D. (2010). A process-oriented guided inquiry approach to teaching medicinal

chemistry. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(7), 121.

Chen, C.Y., Chen, P.C., & Chen, P.Y. (2014). Teaching quality in higher education:

An introductory review on a process-oriented teaching-quality model. Total

Quality Management & Business Excellence, 25(1-2), 36-56.

Czerwanski, A., & Solzbacher, C. (2004). Förderung von Lernkompetenz in der

Schule – Praxisbeispiele. Verlag Bertelsmann.

Daszkiewicz, N. (2014). Education as a Stimulating Factor for Entrepreneurship

Development. Horyzonty Wychowania, 13(26), 165-177.

Deutscher bildungs server. (2017). Bildungssysteme der Länder in der Bundesrepublik

Deutschland. Retrieved from: (access:


Dreier, R. (2012). Medien im Unterricht. 28.10.2012. Retrieved from: (access: 04.05.2017).

Eckhardt, R. (2017). Schuldenprävention. Retrieved from: http://www.berufsschule- (access: 04.05.2017).

European Commission. (2016). Besonderheiten des deutschen Bildungswesens.

Retrieved from:

Deutschland:%C3%9Cberblick (access: 04.05.2017).

Gerhart-Hauptmann-Schule. (2016). AG-Angebote 2016/2017. 18.09.2016.

Retrieved from:

ag-angebote-20122013 (access: 04.05.2017).

Gewerbliche Schule Tübingen. (2017). Projekte des ITG. Retrieved from: https://

schuelerprojekte-n.html, (access: 04.05.2017).

Gibb, A.A. (1993). Enterprise culture and education understanding enterprise

education and its links with small business, entrepreneurship and wider educational

goals. International Small Business Journal, 11(3), 11-34.

Haupt- und Realschule Eschershausen im Wilhelm Raabe Schulzentrum. (2017a).

Berufsorientierung einmal ganz anders! Retrieved from: http://hrs-eschershausen.

de/wb/pages/projekte/bau-eines-imkerhauses.php (access: 04.05.2017).

Haupt- und Realschule Eschershausen im Wilhelm Raabe Schulzentrum. (2017b).

Berufsorientierung wird an der HRS Eschershausen „GROSS” geschrieben!

Retrieved from:

berufsorientierung-an-der-hrs.php (access: 04.05.2017).

Henry, C., Hill, F., & Leitch, C. (2005). Entrepreneurship education and training:

can entrepreneurship be taught? Part I. Education + Training, 47(2), 98-111.

Kührt, P. (2011). Planspiel Kommunalpolitik. 29.07.2011. Retrieved from: http://

planspiel-kommunalpolitik (access: 04.05.2017).

Kwieciński, L., & Młodzińska-Granek, A. (2014). Academic Entrepreneurship in

the Humanities and Social Sciences: Research Conducted among Students

of Wroclaw University. Horyzonty Wychowania, 13(26), 33-49.

Lehrerinnen for bildung Baden-Württemberg. (2017). Firma Steiff in China. Retrieved


modul2b/klasse8/steiff/ (access: 04.05.2017).

Marques, L.A. & Albuquerque, C. (2012). Entrepreneurship education and the

development of Young people life competencies and skills. ACRN Journal of

Entrepreneurship Perspectives, 1(2), 55-68.

Martin, J.P. (2010). Lernen durch Lehren: ein modernes Unterrichtskonzept.

Retrieved from: (access:


Methodenpool Uni-Koeln. (2017a). Kurze Beschreibung der Methode. Retrieved

from: (access:


Methodenpool Uni-Koeln. (2017b). Kurze Beschreibung der Methode. Retrieved


html (access: 04.05.2017).

Moreno, J.J.J. & Wach, K. (2014). The Entrepreneurial Profile of Students Participating

in the Academic Entrepreneurship Source: Pilot Study Results.

Horyzonty Wychowania, 13(26), 121-143.

Müller, F. (2006). Selbstständigkeit fördern und fordern. Handlungsorientierte

und praxiserprobte Methoden für alle Schularten und Schulstufen. Weinheim

und Basel.

OECD. (2016). Pisa 2015 results in focus. Retrieved from:

pisa/pisa-2015-results-in-focus.pdf (access: 03.05.2017).

Othman, N. & Nasrudin, N. (2016). Entrepreneurship education programs in Malaysian

polytechnics. Education + Training, 58(7/8), 882-898.

Płaziak, M. & Rachwał, T. (2014). Kształcenie w zakresie przedsiębiorczości na

polskich uniwersytetach na studiach nieekonomicznych (na przykładzie kierunku

geografia). Horyzonty Wychowania, 13(26), 249-266.

Rachwał, T. & Wach, K. (2016). Badanie intencji przedsiębiorczych młodego pokolenia:

wyniki ankietyzacji wśród studentów kierunków nieekonomicznych.

Przedsiębiorczość – Edukacja, 12.

Raphael-Schule. (2017). Projektwoche. Retrieved from: http://www.raphael-schule.

de/Schulleben/Projektwochen (access: 04.05.2017).

Ruah, P. (2017). Betriebspraktikum im Ausland (Jahrgangsstufe Q1). Retrieved

from: (access: 04.05.2017).

Schulgesetz Berlin. (2017). SchulG Berlin – § 84 Sprecherinnen und Sprecher der

Schülerinnen und Schüler. Retrieved from:



und-schueler.php (access: 04.05.2017).

Spörhase-Eichmann, U. (2004). Biologie Didaktik – Praxishandbuch für die Sekundarstufe I und II. Berlin: Cornelsen Verlag.

St. Jakobus Gymnasium. (2017). Partnerschaft und Kooperation – breite und

vertiefte Bildung unserer Schülerinnen und Schüler. Retrieved from: http://

(access: 04.05.2017).

Tasnim, R. & Yahya, S. (2013). Playing Entrepreneurship: Can Games Make

a Difference. Entrepreneurial Practice Review, 2(4), 4-16.

Thematic Working Group on Entrepreneurship Education. (2014). Final Report of

the Thematic Working Group on Entrepreneurship Education. November 2014.

Urbaniec, M. (2014). Współczesne wyzwania edukacji na rzecz przedsiębiorczości

w szkolnictwie wyższym. Horyzonty Wychowania, 13(26), 209-230.

Vacek, J.J. (2011). Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL), a teaching

method from physical sciences, promotes deep student learning in aviation.

Collegiate Aviation Review, 29(2), 78.

Vermunt, J. & Verschaffel, L. (2000). Process-oriented teaching. In R.J. Simons,

J. von der Linden, T. Duffy (eds.), New learning. Springer Netherlands,


Wach, K. (2002). Szkoły wyższe w służbie dla rozwoju przedsiębiorczości lokalnej.

Prace Naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej we Wrocławiu, 951 (Zarządzanie

strategiczne w teorii i praktyce), 263-272.

Wach, K. (2013). Edukacja na rzecz przedsiębiorczości wobec współczesnych

wyzwań cywilizacyjno‑gospodarczych. Przedsiębiorczość – Edukacja,

, 246-257.

Wach, K. (2014a). Edukacja dla przedsiębiorczości: pomiędzy przedsiębiorczą

pedagogiką a edukacją ekonomiczną i biznesową. Horyzonty Wychowania,

(28), 11-31.

Wach, K. (2014b). Europeanisation of Entrepreneurship Education in Europe –

Looking Back and Looking Forward. Horyzonty Wychowania, 13(26), 11-32.

Wach, K. (2015). Środowisko biznesu rodzinnego jako stymulanta intencji przedsiębiorczych młodzieży akademickiej. Przedsiębiorczość i Zarządzanie, XVI(7[III]), 25-40.

Wach, K. (2016a). Edukacja przedsiębiorcza: analiza bibliometryczna polskiego

piśmiennictwa. Horyzonty Wychowania, 15(34), 11-26.

Wach, K. (2016b). Edukacja w zakresie przedsiębiorczości: potencjał dydaktyczny

polskich uniwersytetów. Horyzonty Wychowania, 15 (35), 11-27. DOI:


Wach, K. & Wojciechowski, L. (2016). Entrepreneurial Intentions of Students in

Poland in the View of Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(1), 83-94.__

Jak cytować
Łuczak-Trąpczyńska, M., & Trąpczyński, P. (2017). Fostering A Multi-level Approach to Entrepreneurial Pedagogy: The German Experience. Horyzonty Wychowania, 16(37), 129-146. Pobrano z